In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount The isocost line is combined with the isoquant map to determine the optimal production point at any given level of output. Specifically, the point. Isocost-isoquant analysis: theory of production: The production function: a figure known as an isoquant diagram (Figure 1). In the graph, goldsmith-hours per. Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain.

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See all related question in economics. Iscost, on an indifference map one can only say that a higher indifference curve gives more satisfaction than a lower one, but it cannot be said how much more or less satisfaction is being derived from one indifference curve as compared to the other, whereas one can easily tell by how much output is greater on a higher isoquant in comparison with a lower isoquant.

Explain a firm’s equilibrium with the help of isoquants and isocost line. –

Iso-cost line K 1 L 1 is just not relevant because the output level represented by the isoquant P is not producible by any factor combination available on this iso-cost line.

This can be understood with the aid of the isoquant schedule, in Table The law of variable proportions says that, given the technique of production, the application of mote and more units of a variable factor, say labour, to a fixed factor, say capital, will, until a certain point is reached, yield more than proportional increases in output, and thereafter less than proportional increases in output. Isoquants are negatively sloped in the economically relevant range, convex to the origin and do not intersect.

No two factors are perfect substitutes. If the price of labour falls the firm could buy more of labour and the line will shift away from the origin.

Isoquant and Isocost Lines (With Diagram) | Economics

It means that in order to double the output from tomore than double the amounts of both factors are required. This is explained in Panel B of Figure The firm will produce only in those segments of the isoquants which are convex to the sioquant and lie between the ridge lines.


Isoquant is also called as equal product curve or production indifference curve or constant product curve. In other words when the quantity of labour is increased by LR and RS, the output declines from to and to Like the price-income line in the indifference curve analysis, a relative cheapening of one of the factors to that of another will extend the isocost line to the right.

Where the isoquant touches but does not cross the lowest isocost line is the least cost position. To explain the law, capital is taken as a fixed factor and labour as iwocost variable factor. Lastly, since satisfaction on indifference curves cannot be measured in physical units, they are given arbitrary numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. The second condition is that the isoquant curve must be convex to the origin at the point of tangency with the isocost line, as explained above in terms of Figure Its slope is given by the ratio isoocost the prices of the two factors.

Subsidiary industries crop up to help the main industry. The conditions for the equilibrium of the firm are the same, as discussed above. It means that the marginal rate of technical substitution is diminishing. An indifference curve isoqquant the locus of points indicating particular combinations of goods from which the consumer derives the same When this happens the ratio of the prices of factors is the same as the ratio of their marginal products. Further, as the firm expands, it enjoys internal economies of production.

If it decides to produce at EF cost, it can produce the entire output with only OF labour. M is thus the optimal combination for the firm. In the theory of production, the profit maximisation firm is in equilibrium when, given the cost-price function, it maximises its profits on the basis of the least cost combination of factors.

This is explained in terms of Figure Iso cost line shows various combinations of labour and capital that the firm can buy for a given factor prices. Suppose capital is a fixed factor and labour is a variable factor. Then an outlay of Rs.


It is elliptical which means that at some point it begins to recede from each axis. These alternatives are shown also in Fig. At this point, the firm is maximising its output level of units by employing the optimal combination of OM of capital and ON of labour, given its cost outlay CL.

A profit maximisation firm faces two choices of optimal combination of factors inputs: A higher isoquant represent lower level of output.

At this point, the firm is minimising its cost for producing units. The first condition is that the slope of the isocost line must equal the slope of the isoquant curve. We may now speak a few words about the slopes of isoquant and an isocost line.

If labour were relatively more expensive, the isocost lines would be steeper in Fig.

In this equationPL is the price of labour and Pk is the price of capital. The properties of isoquants, as we shall study below, are exactly similar to those of indifference curves.

Self-Assessment is a system under which the taxpayer is required to declare the basis of his assessment e. This condition makes ieoquant If a producer seeks to minimize the cost of producing a given amount of output the condition of the equilibrium, is that the marginal rate of technical substitution must be equal to the factor price ratio.

Increasing returns to scale also result from specialisation and division of labour.

Explain a firm’s equilibrium with the help of isoquants and isocost line.

With right angled or L shaped, isoquantinputs can only be combined in fixed proportion in production. That is why, in the case of constant returns to scale, the production function is homogeneous of degree one.

If, in the short run, its total output remains fixed due to capacity constraint and if it is a price-taker i.